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Abstract:
Professional training tapes can be useful, but often they may not demonstrate the precise points that you want to emphasize. Making your own videotape can be quite useful, and can allow you to adapt your tape to particular settings, racial-ethnic groups, and languages not represented on available trianing tapes.

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Giving Feedback

Abstract:
Trainers move among trainees during exercises and offer suggestions and observations.

Overview:
The trainer initiates a practice exercise and then circulates among trainees. The trainer’s tasks are to listen, reinforce performance of the task and MI consistent skills. The trainer may also problem-solve, offer suggestions and guide participants back on task.

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Generalizing Gains

'''Abstract''':
A single training workshop is seldom enough to produce stable changes in practice behavior. Specific follow-up training methods can be helpful in maintaining and generalizing skill learning.

'''Overview''':
From the very beginning of training, emphasize that initial training is really just a preparation for learning MI. Trainees can be involved in the process during the course of initial training, to develop specific strategies for maintaining, extending, and generalizing changes in practice behavior.

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Evoking Discussion

Abstract:
Within a basic didactic structure, trainees are actively involved in the teaching-learning process as the trainer elicits to-be-learned material from them, rather than imparting it in lecture format. In this variation on Eliciting, participants break out into small groups to discuss a target question or problem.

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Dodge Ball

'''Abstract''':
Trainees work in teams to reply to client statements with MI-consistent responses such as reflections or open questions.

'''Overview''':
Trainees can learn to differentiate between reflections and questions and learn to respond nondefensively to resistance statements by using this team approach to “dodge” resistance. Dodge Ball differs from Batting Practice in that any member of a team may provide a stimulus or response.

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Designing

'''Abstract''':
Different methods are called for in different learning situations. Trainees are actively involved in designing a particular type of group, training, individual intervention, etc.

'''Overview''':
This helps trainees draw flexibly on their own experience and a range of methods that have been presented, to design an MI intervention (or training) to accomplish particular goals, or to deal with specific challenges or populations.

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Debriefing

'''Abstract''':
The trainer uses post-exercise discussion to support risks taken by participants, reinforce learning, emphasize key points, and reinforce participants’ sense of accomplishment

'''Overview''':
Trainees are asked to answer questions about the just completed activity

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Contest

'''Abstract''':
The trainer uses a competition among audience members to facilitate learning.

'''Overview''':
Trainees are asked to compete, either individually or in teams, in a specific task.

'''Guidelines''':
Use contests in a way that produces a sense of fun and lightheartedness, rather than encouraging serious competitive “one-ups-manship”. Make the task clear and specific. Specify in advance who will judge the outcomes, and how decisions will be made.

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Card Me

'''Abstract''':
To avoid having the same problem twice in trainings, have a set of index cards on which to write an item that you need to “fix.”

'''Overview''':
When you encounter an element in training that needs to be “fixed” before you train again, put it on an index card. You can, of course, write these yourself if time permits, but often these occur while you’re in the midst of training. In order not to interrupt your flow and attention, you can ask a member of the group to write down the item that needs to be fixed.

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Brainstorming

'''Abstract''':
A good way to find out what people are thinking, to stimulate creative suggestions, and to enhance active engagement in learning.

'''Overview''':
Pose a particular topic or task, and ask the group to generate possible ideas, suggestions, methods, perspectives, etc. Obviously it is of particular value when the goal is to generate a range of possibilities.

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Batting Practice

'''Abstract''':
Trainees can learn to make reflections or respond to resistance. Doing so is easier than it looks, and this can be a confidence builder.

'''Overview''':
Trainees can learn to make reflections “on their feet” by using an exercise called “Batting Practice,” drawing on an image from baseball or cricket. The concept of the game is that the trainee does not have to “hit a home run,” but merely has to “get some wood on it” as if it were batting practice rather than a major league game.

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Negative Practice

Abstract: In preparation for teaching an interpersonal skill, trainees experience first-hand what happens when the opposite approach is taken.

Overview: This exercise is designed to raise trainees' awareness of common responses that are not reflective listening or motivational interviewing, and how they can obstruct motivation and change.

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